Panic Disorder Explained

While it’s common to experience one or two panic attacks in your life, at least 4.7% of all adults in America experience panic disorder at some point in their lives. This means that there’s a population of people who have had recurrent and unexpected panic attacks over a long period of time.

They also live in constant fear of having another attack, whether it be in public or alone at home. What’s more, anyone can have a panic attack at any time in their life. This includes children.

In this article, we’re going to uncover the details about panic disorder as well as how it’s treated. Read on to learn more.


Defining Panic Disorder

In the realm of mental health disorders, panic disorder is classified as a type of anxiety disorder. It causes recurring panic attacks – which are defined as feelings of sudden terror when there is no real danger present.

When a panic attack occurs, the individual experiencing it may feel as if they are losing control and exhibit the following physical symptoms:

  • fast heartbeat
  • chest or stomach pain
  • difficulty breathing
  • weakness or dizziness
  • sweating
  • feeling hot or a cold chill
  • tingly or numb hands

As mentioned, a panic attack can crop up at any time and without warning. Many people who have panic disorder live in constant fear of their panic attacks and subsequently avoid places where a panic attack has occurred. In the more severe cases, individuals will become so fearful for their lives that they cannot leave their homes – which is also known as agoraphobia.

It should also be noted that panic disorder is also twice as common in women than it is in men, and it usually begins during the young adult years.

Experts don’t have a definitive answer as to why some people develop panic disorder or experience panic attacks. All that is understood about the disorder and its events so far is that the brain and nervous system play key roles in how fear and anxiety are handled, and that both panic attacks and the disorder are deeply rooted in stress.

It’s also understood that if you have a family history of anxiety disorders, mental health issues, or a substance use disorder, you’re at an increased risk for panic attacks and panic disorder.


Treating Panic Disorder

For individuals living with panic disorder, treatment can help reduce the frequency and intensity of which they experience panic attacks and preemptive fears that lead to these attacks. Like with most anxiety disorders, the primary method of treatment includes a combination of medications and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

Training therapies are also used, such as interoceptive exposure, to help the individual identify their feelings and triggers to learn to cope with the everyday stressors that can bring on a panic attack.

If left untreated, panic disorder can develop into agoraphobia and other phobias, which will eventually interfere with your entire life. If you’ve experienced two or more panic attacks in your life, especially within the same month, it’s essential that you seek out a proper evaluation and possible treatment.

We can help with that. Contact us today to learn more about our affordable treatment options for panic disorder and other mental health disorders.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Explained

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) currently affects 3.5% of adults in America every year. It’s also estimated that one in every eleven people will be diagnosed with PTSD in their lifetimes.

PTSD is actually classified as a type of anxiety disorder, and it typically occurs after an individual has witnessed a deeply traumatizing event in their life. It can also occur if the individual simply witnessed the event with no direct involvement.

Read on to learn more about PTSD and how it’s treated.


Symptoms of PTSD

People who suffer from PTSD are known to have intense, disturbing thoughts and feelings that are directly related to a traumatic experience – long after the event has ended. The anxiety disorder is characterized by the individual “reliving” this event, usually through flashbacks or nightmares as well as feelings of sadness, anger, or fear.

They may also exhibit feelings of detachment or estrangement from others. This typically leads to avoiding situations or people that serve as a reminder of that traumatic event. It also leads to the individual experiencing strong negative reactions to things like loud noises or accidental or innocent touches.

The symptoms of PTSD are broken down into the four following categories:

  1. Intrusion. This includes intrusive thoughts which can range from flashbacks to repeated involuntary memories.
  2. Avoidance. This is when the individual actively avoids people, places, activities, or objects that may trigger distressing memories.
  3. Alterations in cognition and mood. This involves the inability to remember important details of the traumatic event as well as negative thoughts or feelings that bring on distorted beliefs of oneself or others – which often leads to self-blame, shame, ongoing anger or fear, a loss of interests, becoming detached and losing the ability to experience positive emotions.
  4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity. This includes being irritable, exhibiting angry outbursts, reckless and self-destructing behavior, being overly alert, being easily startled, or having issues with sleeping or concentrating.

Treating PTSD Traditionally, PTSD is treated with a combination of medications and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

However, the medical and psychiatric communities are brainstorming new methods of effective treatments all the time. For example, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is becoming increasingly popular among PTSD patients, and medically assisted MDMA treatment is also making its way up the ranks in clinical studies.

Unlike many other mental health disorders, PTSD is one from which individuals can recover over time and with the right combination of medication and therapy.

It’s important to mention that the symptoms of PTSD often don’t occur until about three months after the traumatizing event. If you’ve recently gone through or witnessed a traumatizing event, it’s a good idea to talk to someone as soon as possible to mitigate any potential PTSD symptoms that may crop up.

We can help you with that. Get in touch with us today to learn more about how we can treat PTSD and more.

Bipolar Disorder Explained

Approximately 2.3 million Americans have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The number of individuals who have the mood disorder but aren’t currently diagnosed, however, is even greater.

Bipolar disorder is arguably the most misunderstood of all the mental health disorders out there. In a nutshell, the disorder is marked by extreme shifts in mood. It’s also rarely diagnosed by itself as it’s typically associated with depression and anxiety.

No two individuals suffering from the disorder will have the same exact experiences as it affects everyone differently. The one common denominator is that it impacts every aspect of a person’s life – sometimes to the point where they cannot function or be productive.

What’s more, people who don’t understand the disorder fear it. This only feeds into the stigma surrounding bipolar disorder and those struggling with it. That’s why we’re going to use this article to cover the basics.

Keep reading to learn more about bipolar disorder and what it means to live with it.


Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder – originally known as manic depression – is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings. These extreme mood swings are further broken down to include the emotional highs and lows regarded as mania or hypomania and depression.

There are a few different types of bipolar disorder, with the two most prevalent being Bipolar I and Bipolar II. Bipolar I disorder is defined by mania while bipolar II is defined by hypomania. Both include periods of elevated feelings such as euphoria, high energy, or irritability. They can affect sleep, daily activities, judgment, behavior, thought patterns, and energy levels.

The primary difference is that mania (Bipolar I) is much more severe and can lead to episodes of psychosis. It’s also longer lasting while hypomania (Bipolar II) is less severe and only lasts a few days, while it also always is associated with severe depression.

It should be noted, however, that Bipolar II isn’t a “milder form” of Bipolar I, but rahter a separate diagnosis altogether. While the manic episodes of Bipolar I can be severe and incredibly dangerous, those with Bipolar II disorder can become more depressed and for longer periods.

Generally speaking, bipolar disorder can occur at any age even though it’s usually diagnosed in the teenage years or early 20s. The symptoms can vary from individual to individual and also typically vary over time.


How Is Bipolar Disorder Treated?

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, which means it requires regular treatment to manage the symptoms.

The most common treatments for bipolar include:

  • mood stabilizers
  • antipsychotics
  • antidepressants
  • antidepressant-antipsychotic
  • anti-anxiety medications

Medication is often in addition to cognitive behavioral therapy and other forms of therapy, including interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is also an increasingly popular form of treatment for those unresponsive to medications alone.

With the right combination of treatments, plenty of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are able to live normal and healthy lives. Get in touch with us today to learn more about bipolar disorder and how we can help you determine the severity of your case and manage it appropriately.

Schizophrenia Explained

Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neurological disorder estimated to affect at least 1.1 percent of the adult population in the United States. That’s roughly 2.8 million people over the age of 18. There’s also an estimated 40 percent of individuals that have Schizophrenia but are either undiagnosed or aren’t receiving treatment.

What’s more, Schizophrenia is an even less talked about mental health condition than Major Depressive Disorder and all of its forms. This is because Schizophrenia is highly stigmatized, as it’s characterized by the interference of an individual’s ability to think clearly, manage their emotions, make decisions and relate to others – making it one of the more disabling conditions affecting part of the population.

In this article, we’re going to dive into the basics of Schizophrenia so we can start breaking down the stigma attached to it. Keep reading to learn more.


Defining Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is defined as a serious and complex mental health disorder in which individuals interpret reality abnormally. Moreover, the condition can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking and behavioral patterns so extreme they can interfere with the individual’s daily functions.

Generally speaking, individuals with Schizophrenia will exhibit the following symptoms to varying degrees:

  • delusions, such as thinking that you’re being harassed when you’re not, that you have exceptional talent or fame, that another person is in love with you, or that a major catastrophic event is about to occur
  • hallucinations, which involve seeing or hearing things that aren’t there or don’t exist
  • disorganized thinking, which is inferred from disorganized speech, affecting the individual’s ability to communicate effectively
  • disorganized or abnormal motor behavior, which can manifest in childlike silliness and ranging to unpredictable agitation or refusal to abide by instructions, excessive and useless movement, or bizarre or inappropriate posturing
  • inability to function normally, such as neglecting personal hygiene, inability to make eye contact, lacking emotions, and so on

It should be noted that Schizophrenia is not characterized or associated with split or multiple personality disorders. People with the condition also are not any more violent than the average human being, which is another common misconception.


Treating Schizophrenia

While there isn’t a cure for Schizophrenia, it is a highly treatable condition once diagnosed accordingly. The most common treatments for managing the condition include:

  • antipsychotic medications, which are taken daily in pill form or as a long-acting injectable (LAI)
  • psychosocial treatments, which involve learning coping skills to address everyday challenges and are usually followed after the doctor and patient find the right medication or combination of medications that work
  • Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC), which is a treatment model that integrates medication, psychosocial therapies, case management, family involvement, and even supported education and employment services
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), which is a non-invasive and safe procedure that involves sending a mild electrical current through the brain to alter nervous system activity and pathways. ECT is often used when other medications and therapies have not worked.

While individuals experiencing acute symptoms of schizophrenia require hospitalization, many people with the condition are able to go on to live normal and healthy lives. If you think you or someone you care about may be exhibiting symptoms of the disorder, it’s essential to get a proper evaluation by a mental health professional to rule out any other mental health disorders and determine the severity of the case.

To learn more about getting evaluated or treating schizophrenia, get in touch with us today.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Explained

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions).

It should be noted that having the need to be organized and tidy most of the time is not the same as having OCD. This is because the obsessions and compulsions of an individual who has OCD actually interferes with their daily activities and causes a significant amount of distress.

When people with OCD try to ignore their obsessions or stop their repetitive behavior, it only increases their distress and anxiety. Ultimately, someone with OCD will feel driven to carry out these compulsive acts to try and ease their stress and fears, regardless of their effort to rid themself of troubling thoughts or urges. This is what leads to the ritualistic behavior of feeding into these obsessions and compulsions, otherwise known as the OCD cycle.

Additionally, OCD tends to relate to certain themes. For example, the excessive fear of germ contamination, which could cause a struggling individual to compulsively wash their hands until they’re dry, sore, and chapped.

Read on to learn more.


Symptoms of OCD

The symptoms of OCD are broken down by the obsessive component and the compulsive component.

Obsessions stem from unfounded thoughts, worries, or fears. They crop up often and cause the individual a great amount of anxiety. The common obsessions of OCD include:

  • a strong fixation with germs or dirt
  • repeated doubts, such as worrying if the stove was turned off
  • a need to have things in an ultra-specific order
  • thoughts about violence or hurting others
  • spending long periods of time counting or touching certain items
  • a fixation with order and symmetry
  • persistent thoughts of horrible sexual acts
  • troubling thoughts that are against personal religious beliefs

Compulsions are the repetitive and ritualized acts brought on by the disorder. They are aimed at reducing the anxiety caused by the obsessions, and typically include the following:

  • repetitive hand washing (often 100 or more times a day)
  • checking and rechecking to ensure doors are locked or appliances are shut off
  • following rigid rules of order, such as arranging clothing in a color-coded order each day, alphabetizing everything, arranging items in specific places – and becoming significantly upset when that order is disrupted

Again, something as simple as preferring to keep your seasonings and spices in alphabetical order isn’t the same as having OCD. Obsessions and compulsive acts are time-consuming. They’re excessive and disruptive to an individual’s life, usually to the point where they interfere with that person’s daily life and relationships.


OCD Treatment

OCD is traditionally treated in two ways – psychotherapy and medications.

Psychotherapy includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as well as exposure and response therapy (ExRP or ERP). CBT aims to provide individuals with the tools to cope with their OCD while ERP works to expose the individual to their obsession to work on resisting the urge to carry out the compulsive act that typically follows.

The medications typically prescribed to OCD patients include antidepressants, as OCD is often associated with depression and anxiety.

When medications and psychotherapy are used together, most individuals find relief from their obsessions and compulsions and can live a normal life. However, there is no “cure” for OCD as it’s a condition that requires ongoing management.  New treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are gaining steam and could provide another treatment modality for those suffering from this illness.


If you or someone you know is struggling with symptoms of OCD, don’t hesitate to contact us to see how we can help!

What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)?

Everyone feels anxious from time to time, especially during the more stressful events that occur in life. However, if you’re experiencing consistent and excessive anxiety day in and day out, you may have a mental health disorder known as Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).

GAD is characterized by ongoing anxiety and worry that’s difficult to control and interferes with an individual’s everyday activities. It’s possible to develop this mood disorder as a child or gradually as an adult, and its symptoms are very similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Panic Disorder (PD), and other types of anxiety – although each is its own distinct mental health condition.

Living with GAD can pose many long-term challenges in life. More often than not, GAD occurs with other mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as well as the conditions mentioned above. Mental health professionals typically diagnose GAD in individuals when the worrying and feelings of anxiousness persist on almost a daily basis for a period of six months. This is considered to be to the point of prohibiting a person from living a normal life.


The Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

GAD tends to develop when an individual is unable to cope with internal stress, which is seen in the areas of the brain that control fear and anxiety. It can also be a side effect of medicine or substance use, or it can be related to certain medical conditions that increase hormone activity.

The most common symptoms of GAD include:

  • the persistent worrying or feelings of anxiousness about things that are not proportionate to the impact of the actual events
  • overthinking plans and solutions to all potential worst-case scenarios
  • perceiving situations and events to be threatening when they aren’t
  • trouble coping with uncertainty
  • indecisiveness and fear of making a wrong decision
  • the inability to let go of worry, even temporarily
  • the inability to relax and constantly feeling restless or on edge
  • difficulty concentrating

There are also physical symptoms associated with GAD, such as:

  • trouble sleeping or insomnia
  • fatigue
  • muscle tension and aches
  • feeling twitchy, trembling
  • nervousness, being easily startled, states of hypervigilance
  • sweating
  • irritability
  • nausea, diarrhea, or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

There may be times when these feelings don’t completely consume the individual with GAD, however, they’ll still feel anxious when there’s no reason to. This could cause significant distress in social situations, at work, or in other areas of a person’s life. The worry may also change from one concern to another and change with time and age.


How Is GAD Treated?

When it comes to diagnosing GAD, a mental health professional will take into consideration an individual’s overall health and several other factors to determine the right course of treatment.

The treatment can include one or more of the following, depending on the individual case:

  • medication, including antidepressants
  • cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • relaxation techniques
  • coping techniques
  • making lifestyle changes to reduce stress and become healthier physically and mentally, which often includes avoiding stimulating substances, smoking, alcohol, and even illicit substance use
  • LSD has also been cleared by the FDA for clinical trials for the potential treatment of mood disorders

If you believe you have GAD, please contact us immediately to set up an appointment so that you can start a path toward feeling better!

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Explained

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), or clinical depression, is a mood disorder characterized by the persistent feeling of sadness and loss of general interest. This mood disorder affects how an individual thinks, feels, and behaves, potentially leading to other emotional and physical problems.

Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder may have trouble carrying out normal, everyday activities. They may sometimes, or often, feel that life isn’t worth living.

One of the most important things to understand about depression is that it’s not something that a person can simply just snap out of. It’s not a weakness, and it’s not something that will go away on its own. It requires the help of a mental health professional as well as treatment, which often involves psychotherapy and medication.


What Are the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder?

The symptoms of depression tend to reveal themselves in waves, although some symptoms remain more consistent over time. If you or someone you love is experiencing Major Depressive Disorder, the following symptoms will occur nearly every day, lasting for most of the day:

  • Feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness to varying degrees
  • Outbursts of anger, irritability, or frustration over small things and big things
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most normal activities, such as hobbies, sex, sports, etc
  • Sleep issues, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Fatigue or general tiredness, to the point of small tasks feeling like they take too much effort
  • Appetite changes that result in weight loss or weight gain
  • Ongoing anxiety, agitation, or restlessness
  • Slowed thinking, speech, or even body movements
  • Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • A tendency to fixate on past failures and to self-blame
  • Problems with concentration, general thinking, decision making, and remembering things
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
  • Frequent or recurring thoughts of death or suicide
  • Suicide attempts

For many people with depression, these symptoms are usually prominent enough to cause noticeable problems in daily activities, including work, school, social activities, and relationships. It also causes people to feel miserable or unhappy, in general, without really understanding why.


How is Major Depressive Disorder Treated?

Once properly diagnosed by a mental health professional, there are several courses of treatment that are typical for depression. Namely, therapy in conjunction with medication.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on changing the views an individual has of themself and their current situation. The goal is to help the individual heal their mental state holistically as well as their relationships as therapy provides them with the tools to manage their stressors, identify the validity of their feelings, and more.

Antidepressants are often prescribed to help with what therapy can’t — the “chemical” aspect of depression. This medication, in the right dosage and type, can positively impact the brain’s chemicals to produce the important neurotransmitters that are lacking, such as dopamine and serotonin.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is one of the most effective treatments for depression, having a better response rate than CBT or antidepressants, with minimal side effects.

Other less conventional but still very effective treatments for Major Depressive Disorder include electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ketamine treatments.


Depression can make you feel worthless, helpless, and exhausted. It’s important to understand that these feelings and negative views are not your reality and are a direct result of having a mood disorder. With proper treatment, you can find relief over time and prevent depression from taking over your life.  If you’re seeking treatment for MDD, please contact us to schedule an appointment.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Explained

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and adults. ADHD is characterized by a combination of persistent problems, which include difficulty maintaining attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviors. This mental health disorder often shows in children as young as seven years of age and continues into adulthood, although symptoms can also first appear in young adults.

Children with ADHD are especially known to struggle with low self-esteem, poor performance in school, and even trouble in relationships with their peers and eventually significant others as they enter adulthood. ADHD is not something that can be “outgrown,” however, a combination of coping techniques and medication can help with many of the symptoms.


Common Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

There are three categories of symptoms when it comes to ADHD, and there are also three major classifications for the mental health disorder.

Those three classifications, known as “types” include:

  • Combined: The combined type of ADHD is the most common as it’s characterized by impulsiveness and hyperactivity as well as the inability to pay attention.
  • Impulsive/hyperactive: This type of ADHD is the least common, and is characterized by impulsiveness and hyperactivity minus the inability to pay attention.
  • Inattentive and distractible: This type of ADHD is primarily characterized by the inability to pay attention and the tendency to become distracted easily, minus any hyperactivity or impulsiveness.

As for the typical symptoms associated with ADHD, you have:

  • Inattention:
    • Difficulty sustaining attention (short attention span)
    • Difficulty listening to others
    • Difficulty with details
    • Easily distracted
    • Forgetfulness
    • Poor organizational skills and study skills for the age
  • Impulsivity:
    • Interrupts others often
    • Has a difficult time waiting their turn in school or during social activities
    • Has a tendency to blurt things out, like answers to questions, rather than waiting to be called upon
    • Takes frequent risks without thinking before acting
  • Hyperactivity
    • Seems as if they’re in constant motion, walking, running, or climbing, without an actual reason
    • Has trouble remaining seated
    • Fidgets excessively
    • Talks excessively
    • Has a hard time engaging in quiet activities
    • Is forgetful or loses things often
    • Unable to stay on task, often shifting from one task to another without completing the previous task

Keep in mind that ADHD symptoms may also be related to other medical conditions or behavioral problems. They also may occur in children or adults who do not have ADHD. The key component in diagnosing ADHD is identifying whether or not these symptoms significantly impair the adaptive functioning at home, in school, at work, or in other social environments.


Treatment of ADHD

The course of ADHD treatment is determined by healthcare professionals based on several factors, including age, overall health, medical history, the extent of the symptoms, and more.

Typically, ADHD is treated using psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate products (like Ritalin, Concerta, and Focalin) or amphetamine derivatives (like Adderall, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine) which are designed to balance the brain’s chemicals to promote impulsive behavioral control.  Psychosocial treatment is also used which essentially works by training the parents and even teachers in the proper behavioral management skills to support the child or individual struggling with ADHD.

If you feel that you, or someone you know, is struggling with symptoms of ADHD, please contact us for a full evaluation!

TMS Off-Label Treatments

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) currently has FDA-approval for treating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and nicotine dependence (for smoking cessation). In Europe and other countries, the treatment has been formally approved to treat other conditions aside from MDD and OCD.

However, many mental health professionals in the United States are using TMS as an off-label treatment for other mental health conditions and even some physical conditions. Researchers are also continuing to conduct studies on the treatment’s efficacy for several conditions, which could lead to total FDA approval.

In this article, we’ll cover everything you need to know about these off-label TMS treatments.

Read on to learn more.


What Is TMS?

TMS is short for transcranial magnetic stimulation. It’s a non-invasive procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells to improve neurotransmitter pathways. More specifically, TMS stimulates the areas of the brain that control mood and depression, which increases neurotransmitter activity and decreases symptoms of depression.


What Are Off-Label TMS Treatments?

Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence that TMS therapy is successful in treating a wide range of mental health disorders, the FDA has only cleared TMD for MDD, OCD, and smoking cessation. Therefore, when we say “off-label” TMS treatments, we’re referring to the administration of the therapy for treatment outside of what has been approved by the FDA.

Does this mean that the treatment is any less effective or dangerous? No. It simply means that clinical studies are still in the works regarding the various other mental health and even physical conditions that TMS has the potential to successfully treat. Essentially, it just means that there needs to be a certain amount of clinical hours and conclusive results to receive the official approval stamp granted by the FDA.


What does TMS Treat, and Is It Effective?

There are several conditions that TMS has the potential to effectively treat, including the following:

  • Bipolar disorder
  • ADD and ADHD
  • Substance use disorders
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Anxiety
  • Autism
  • Eating Disorders
  • Migraines and chronic pain
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Schizophrenia
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Put simply, in targeting specific regions of the brain, TMS therapy has essentially proven to “rewire” the brain’s neural pathways. Multiple studies have shown its efficacy in increasing positive brain activity and decreasing negative brain activity.

For example, in the case of individuals with autism, TMS has been shown to reduce certain symptoms associated with the condition such as reducing irritability and repetitive behaviors. It has also shown to improve hand-eye coordination as well as social skills.

Additionally, a study conducted in France concluded that TMS may be the key to improving balance and motor functions in people with MS when combined with traditional rehabilitation techniques.


Are There Any Negative Side Effects?

TMS therapy is not only highly effective, but proven safe. What’s even more exciting is that it may soon be able to serve as a viable and healthier alternative to prescription medications.

Of course, this doesn’t mean that there aren’t any adverse side effects involved. Individuals who receive TMS treatment may experience headaches or tingling in their scalp or jaw. However, these side effects are both rare and mild, and there are also no long-term negative side effects of the treatment.

If you’re interested in TMS, contact us now in order to schedule a consultation!

Personality Disorders

Our personalities are characterized by our way of thinking, feeling, and behaving in a way that makes us unique from others. We’re influenced by our environment and experiences, as well as the other people we surround ourselves with and any inherited traits that become shaped over time.

Our personalities typically remain the same over time, although our views may change or we may grow more mature. Someone with a personality disorder, however, is a different story.

Keep reading to learn more.


What Is a Personality Disorder?

A personality disorder is a mental health condition characterized by long-lasting, all-encompassing, and disruptive thought patterns. The same goes for behaviors and moods in relation to others. In other words, a person with a personality disorder has a way of thinking, feeling, and behaving that completely deviates from the normal expectations of a given culture.

Personalities disorders often cause people a significant amount of distress and other functional impairment problems over long periods of time. They can distort a person’s perception of reality, causing abnormal behaviors – all the while the individual in question may have difficulty recognizing their problematic behavior and the negative impact it has on those around them.


What Are the Different Kinds of Personality Disorders?

There are actually ten different types of personality disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). These different personality disorders are grouped into three main “clusters” or categories, each with different symptoms in common, labeled A through C.


Cluster A Personality Disorders

Cluster A personality disorders are primarily characterized by unusual and eccentric thought patterns and behaviors. They also revolve around severely limited relationships as they cause people to be suspicious, detached, disinterested, and uncomfortable when it comes to other people.

The disorders that fall under the Cluster A category include:

● Paranoid personality disorder

● Schizoid personality disorder

● Schizotypal personality disorder


Cluster B Personality Disorders

Cluster B personality disorders are related through dramatic and erratic behaviors during which people will display intense and unstable emotions as well as impulsive behaviors. Cluster B personality disorders usually stem from a distorted self-image and lack of self-worth which can cause destructive behavior, an overwhelming need to be noticed by others, feelings of superiority, and even a lack of empathy.

Cluster B personality disorders include:

● Antisocial personality disorder

● Borderline personality disorder

● Histrionic personality disorder

● Narcisissitc personality disorder


Cluster C Personality Disorders

Cluster C personality disorders usually involve severe anxiety and fear. People who fall under the Cluster C category may be incredibly clingy or dependent on someone else to care for them, avoid social interaction out of fear of judgment and rejection, or have extreme control issues.

The personality disorders that fall under Cluster C include:

● Avoidant personality disorder

● Dependent personality disorder

● Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)


Personality disorders are among the least understood mental health conditions. They are thought to be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, brain chemistry changes, genetics, and even cultural factors. In many cases, individuals will have more than one type of personality disorder yet don’t see how their behavior is an issue and therefore don’t seek treatment.

While there are no medications designed to treat personality disorders, mental health professionals often prescribe medications to relieve the symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with these disorders along with talk therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy to help manage the condition.

If you feel that you need treatment for a personality disorder, our psychotherapists and psychiatric clinicians are available to give validating treatment.  Contact us to schedule an appointment!